Entender os casos em Alemão

Artigos definidos, indefinidos, possessivos e sem artigo

Artigo definido, sem artigo, artigo indefinido e artigo possessivo,
para os quatro casos, os três géneros, singular e plural; em Alemão

Um dos problemas para quem aprende Alemão é tentar entender os quatro diferentes casos, ou seja, nominativo, acusativo, dativo ou genitivo. Segundo a minha professora de Alemão esta tabela é aquela sobre a qual todo o estudante de Alemão deve observar e refletir, por uns minutos, todos os dias antes de adormecer. Uma regra geral para perceber como funcionam os casos pode ser geralmente pensar que o nominativo aplica-se ao sujeito; o acusativo aplica-se ao complemento/objeto direto; o dativo ao complemento/objeto indireto e o genitivo ao objeto de posse do sujeito.

      Os poemas do escritor são escritos com uma caneta para a sua amada

O que é que é escrito (do verbo ser escrito)? Qual é o sujeito principal que aplica a ação (o verbo) ser escrito? Os poemas, logo "os poemas" está no caso nominativo.

São escritos para quem, ou para quê? Qual é o complemento direto da ação de ser escrito? A sua amada, pois é a ela que são escritos os poemas, logo a sua amada está no caso acusativo.

O que é que auxilia ou complementa de forma indireta a ação de escrever? O complemento indireto, ou seja, a caneta. Logo a caneta está no caso dativo.

Os poemas são de quem? Qual a entidade que possui o sujeito? O escritor, logo o escritor está no caso genitivo.

      Die Gedichte des Schriftstellers sind mit einem Stift für seine Geliebte geschrieben

Os poemas (Die Gedichte) estão no plural e no nominativo, usando-se o artigo definido (os, Die). Olhando para a tabela lá de cima, verifica-se então que fica apenas Die. A sua amada (seine Gelibte) como verificámos está no acusativo, e como é um nome feminino e se faz uso do artigo possessivo aplicando a tabela, vamos ao caso acusativo e género feminino e ficamos com seine (a tabela mostra apenas "meu"). A caneta (der Stift), ou melhor uma caneta (ein Stift), verificámos que estava no caso dativo, e considerando que se trata de um nome masculino e usamos aqui o artigo indefinido (uma, ein), observando a tabela fica-se com einem Stift. O escritor (der Schriftsteller), ou melhor "do escritor", não esquecendo que a palavra do é a contração entre "de" e "o", verificámos que está no caso genitivo. Como é um nome masculino, e se faz uso do artigo definido "o", observando a tabela ficamos com des Schriftstellers.

O mesmo princípio se aplica aos adjetivos associados aos nomes, que mudam em função dos casos, tal como consta na tabela acima, mas por questões de simplicidade, não exemplificarei. Em Português, os adjetivos mudam apenas em função do género e do número do nome, ou seja por exemplo "belo gato", "belos gatos", "bela gata", "belas gatas". Mas em Alemão, como pode ser observado, os adjetivos mudam em função do género, do número e do caso. Há todavia formas mais fáceis em Alemão de saber automaticamente qual o caso que devemos aplicar, em função das preposições.


      bis, durch, für, gegen, ohne, um


      ab, aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu

Com as outras preposições como in ou über, tal dependerá do contexto da frase, podendo ser acusativo ou dativo.

Pronomes pessoais

Tabela de pronomes pessoais para diferentes pessoas, número e caso.

Na língua portuguesa restam uns resquícios da alguns casos, principalmente nos pronomes pessoais. Ninguém em português diz "com tu", mas sim contigo. O "tigo" é de certa forma o equivalente ao dativo da língua portuguesa para o "tu". Em Alemão diz-se mit dir, pois a segunda pessoa do singular du, como se segue à preposição mit, está no dativo. Em Português ninguém diz "para tu" mas sim para ti. O ti, é um resquício do caso acusativo do pronome pessoal tu. Equivalentemente diz-se em Alemão für dich pois segue-se à preposição für.

Why is USA theologically the great Satan?

First of all, I must refer I’m neither a Muslim nor an Arab. I do not at all support any kind of terrorist attack nor I tolerate any kind of aggression towards human lives. I’m a pacifist and I’m not the “religious” type, if we consider the meaning this term has for the common sense. I’m just a philosopher and my favourite authors are Plato and Voltaire.

Nevertheless I completely understand the term “Satan”, merely as a religious metaphor. Satan, per se, does not exist, science hasn’t found it nor there is any kind of theory that might support the lightest existence of Satan. Though, Man since the most ancient times interpreted many facts through His mind and spirit giving them metaphoric symbolism. One of these might be the sky-night constellations, merely combinations of light spots in the sky which were anthropomorphised. The planet Venus is another interesting example, due to its colour and pathway in the sky. Because it is red and its path has an approximately V-shape in the sky, having the V letter the shape of the female vulva (word which starts with V, having also two V), which our ancestors would see in their daily lives on normally naked women, as underwear is an evolutionary recent creation, Venus was then historically linked with femininity, and through psychological connection with love and lust. The Great Architect, the entity Masons throughout the world define as their God, is another metaphor, as the architect is the being which draws the plan masons shall follow. We can nowadays with science clearly state that almost everything which is in the Bible might have some connection with reality, but only through metaphors, Adam and Eve being a clear example. We know that Homo Sapiens (modern man) had a beginning around two hundred thousand years ago. Primates and Homo Sapiens seem to have an anthropological primary fear of serpents, because evolution taught us serpents are dangerous as they are poisonous.  Still, because there is a very strong Freudian psycho-sexual connection (due to shape) between serpents and penis, serpents were strongly associated with the animal of lust and sin. Sin, Serpent and She are words which start with the letter S, the lonely shape of the letter S appearing to be itself a serpent. The Genesis is nothing but a metaphor.

Man made metaphors due to anthropological reasons. Therefore, normally they are linked with animals, meteorological and astronomic factors or - since Man, like any mammal, is a collective being which by default interacts in communities and groups - social interactions which we define with values.  Good and Evil, God and Satan, Heaven and Hell are just some examples. Many saints in catholic countries for instance are “responsible” for weather and crops; animals are seen as the mascots and symbols for so many clubs and teams; and good and evil are concepts which Mankind found many millennia ago to be optimal to define behaviours which are dangerous to the community or the common wealth, and those which are desirable as they are linked with prosperity, harmony and order. That’s why in every theological culture or regime killing innocents is somehow linked with Evil, and charity is linked with God. The illuminist movement converted these metaphoric concepts in something much more rational, although with the same ethical approaches and having the same practical functions, as killing is sanctioned by law and solidarity (the modern state charity) is seen as something desirable.

Metaphors, strongly supported by religion, played then a key role in our culture, even the Western one, and they were slowly through ages unveiled, as science and intellectual movements were progressing. So, as Satan scientifically does not exist, what this metaphor really represents and why USA fits within it? USA has 5% of the world population but consumes 20% of the world resources, externalising environmental and social costs to other countries. USA was the only country, along with Australia, that didn’t sign in for the Kyoto agreement, the first compromising international agreement in-which so many nations worldwide decided to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. USA was the only country throughout Mankind History that used atomic power to kill civilians. Around eighty percent of the world pornography – and I suppose, disregarding at all religious factors, that anyone might find wide broadcasted pornography as something desirable for prosperity and order – is produced in USA. USA is the only country, like Vietnam if I’m not mistaken, which legally accepts abortion up to the day the baby is born. Killing legally a healthy infant minutes before he is born, does not seem to be, for every reasonable person, something liable to be “good”. Observe the interesting graphical similarity between the words good and god, and the fact the letter G, is the letter for the word Galaxy, as our ancestors thought the Milky Way, was the Universe, having a helicoidally shape which then applied to the shape of the letter G, the letter of the word God. In USA, having a fire-weapon for “self-defence” is a legal and alleged constitutional basic right, and we know, that the only purpose and end of a fire-weapon is to kill. The developers of fire-weapons are not thinking in self-defence when they design and build them, but merely how to provoke the highest damage in the opponent, an euphemism to describe normally a human being. USA is one of the countries with more automobiles per inhabitant and in absolute number; being also a great promoter of these metal machines; the automobile being responsible in the 20th century for the same fatalities as the second world war, just in road accidents. USA does it since the Ford age, because automobiles run on oil derivatives, and oil plays a key role in the economic external affairs of the empire, mainly nowadays due to the petrodollar system, causing enormous severities to the planet Earth, mainly pollution. USA has the military power (even in historical proportions), that no other nation had in History, and commences a major war on average on every 10 or 15 years against another sovereign nation. The goals which are normally given to these wars are described as humanitarian or democratic, but history seems to verify that they are simply economic. The “axis of evil”, as Bush defined, is just a set of oil producing countries which do not wish to comply with the petrodollar system. 

USA, like the Nazis did, put one of the most outstanding qualities of Mankind, its capacity for innovation and creativity, on the service of death and destruction. Satan does not scientifically exist, but as with its metaphoric representation is concerned, USA fits within-it very clearly!